The projected climatic changes in the Arctic, particularly the projected decrease in sea-ice extent and thickness, will result in increased accessibility to the open ocean and surrounding coastal areas. This is very likely to make it easier to exploit marine and coastal species, over a larger area and for a greater proportion of the year. Decreased extent and thickness of sea ice and increased seawater temperatures will, however, also result in changes in the distribution, diversity, and productivity of marine species in the Arctic and so will change the environment for hunters and indigenous peoples. However, increased traffic and physical disturbance caused by increased access to the marine areas is likely to pose a more significant threat to biodiversity than increased hunting pressure. On land, snow and ice cover in winter enable access into remote areas by snowmobile and the establishment of ice roads; however, in summer, transportation and movement become more difficult. A shorter winter season and increased thawing of permafrost in summer, potentially resulting from a warming climate, could reduce hunting pressure in remote areas.